|China, Eastern Asia|
|Latitude: (39, Longitude: 104|
|Browse China map|
| External links:
|Use this template for your city • What do the links do?|
China is a country in Eastern Asia at latitude 39° 0′ 0″ North, longitude 104° 0′ 0″ East.
|OpenStreetMap images (and underlying map data) are freely available under the OpenStreetMap License.|
欢迎来到维基中国项目页面 ! Welcome to the Wikiproject China ! 中华人民共和国为亚洲的一个国家，位处北纬32度，东经103度。
- 1 Legality
- 2 中国行政区划/Administrative divisions of China
- 3 Conventions
- 4 流程/Workflow
- 5 Possible Sources
- 6 GNS Place names data
- 7 AND数据/AND data
- 8 链接/Useful Link
- 9 相关项目/Related projects
According to the Surveying and Mapping Law of the People's Republic of China, private surveying and mapping activities are illegal in mainland China.
China's state media has released a news article about illegal mapping efforts as a threat to national security. The article also mentions news which had been announced before, that any foreigner collecting geographical data without permission will be "severely punished".
- March 7, 2007 - Unlawful surveys to be dealt severely
- March 25, 2008 - China cracks down on illegal online map services to protect state security
- January 6, 2009 - China fines UK students for 'illegal map-making'
- May 19, 2010 - China goes after illegal online maps
This seems to outlaw the entire OSM project, and any participation or contribution. Presumably the government wouldn't go to the hassle of pursuing criminals who have contributed data so far.
中国行政区划/Administrative divisions of China
The administrative division is quite strict in China and the importance and size of a place is almost entirely determined by its administrative level. The general OSM classification (with just city, town, village), however, is not really sufficient to reflect these levels. In order to reflect the Chinese administrative division better a separate tag is used to denote this: china_class=*. The classification for places, in addition to and not replacing the standard OSM tagging, (with hopefully self-explanatory names) is:
|17 Prefecture (地区; dìqū)— These were formerly the dominant second-level division, which is why this administrative level is often called "prefecture-level". However, they were replaced for the most part by prefecture-level cities from 1983 to the 1990s. Today, prefectures exist mostly in Xinjiang and Tibet Use place=city|
|30 Autonomous Prefectures (自治州; zīzhìzhōu)— Are prefectures with one or more designated ethnic minorities. These are mostly to be found in China's western regions. Use place=city|
|283 Prefecture-level Cities]] (地级市; dìjíshì)— It form the vast majority of prefecture-level divisions. Prefecture-level cities are generally composed of an urban center and surrounding rural areas much larger than the urban core, and thus are not "cities" but municipal in the strict sense of the term. Use place=city|
|3 Leagues (盟; méng)— are effectively the same as prefectures, but they are to be found only in Inner Mongolia. Like prefectures, leagues have mostly been replaced with prefecture-level cities. The unique name is a holdover from earlier forms of administration in Mongolia. Use place=city|
|1,464 Counties (县; xiàn)— are the most common county-level subjects. Counties have continuously existed since the Warring States Period, much earlier than any other level of government in China. In Sinology literature, xian are often translated as "districts" or "prefectures". Use place=town||
|117 Autonomous Counties (自治县; zìzhìxiàn)— are counties with one or more designated ethnic minorities. These are analogous to autonomous regions (at the province-level) and autonomous prefectures (at the prefecture-level). Use place=town||
|374 County-level cities (县级市; xiànjíshì)— are, like prefecture-level cities, not "cities" in the traditional sense of the word, since they are actually large administrative regions that cover both urban and rural areas. It was popular for counties to become county-level cities in the 1990s, though this has since been halted.|
|852 Districts (市辖区; shìxiáqū)— another type of county-level division. These were formerly the subdivisions of urban areas, consisting of built-up areas only. In recent years, however, many counties have been converted into districts, so that today districts are often just like counties, with towns, villages, and farmland. Use place=suburb|
|49 Banners (旗; qí)— which are the same as counties except in name. The name is a holdover from earlier forms of administration in Mongolia. Use place=town||
|3 Autonomous Banners (自治旗; zìzhìqí)— which are the same autonomous counties except in name. The name is a holdover from earlier forms of administration in Mongolia. + place=town||
|1 Forestry Areas (林区; línqū)— a special county-level subject forestry district currently there is only one forestry area (Shennongjia) located in Hubei province.|
|2 Special Districts (特区; tèqū)— another special county-level subject exclusively located in Guizhou province.|
|14,677 Townships (乡; xiāng)— in smaller rural areas division they are divided into this subject. Use place=town|
|Ethnic Townships (民族乡; mínzúxiāng)— in a small one or more designated ethnic minorities rural areas division they are divided into this subject. Use place=town|
|19,522 Towns (镇; zhèn)— in larger rural areas division they are divided into this subject Use place=town|
|6,152 Subdistricts (街道办事处; jiēdàobànshìchù)— in a small urban areas division they are divided into this subject|
|11 District Public Offices (区公所; qūgōngsuǒ)— are a vestigial level of government. These once represented an extra level of government between the county- and township-levels. Today there are very few of these remaining and they are gradually being phased out.|
|181 Sumus (苏木; sūmù)— are the same as townships, but are unique to Inner Mongolia. Use place=town|
|1 Ethnic Sumus (民族苏木; mínzúsūmù)— are the same as ethnic townships, but are unique to Inner Mongolia. Use place=town|
|80,717 Neighborhood Committees (社区居民委员会; jūmínwěiyuánhùi)|
|Neighborhoods / Communities (社区; shèqū)|
|623,669 Village Committees / Village groups ((村民委员会 / 村民小组; cūnmínwěiyuánhùi / cūnmínxiǎozǔ). Use place=village|
|Administrative Villages (行政村; xíngzhèngcūn) Use place=village|
|Natural Villages (自然村; zìráncūn) Use place=village|
|City-Type Neighborhood (居民区; jūmínqū)|
|City-Type Communities (社区; shèqū)|
Road classification refers to relative importance in a region, not to the construction quality of the road or number of lanes (except in the case of expressways). Big city standards should not be applied in rural areas.
- G routes - Guodao (国道), or China National Highways.
- Use highway=motorway for G class expressways (高速公路) with white on green traffic signs, whose number contains 2 or 4 digits, i.e. routes of China National Expressway Network (中国国家高速公路网). See the list here.
- Use highway=trunk for G class highways not superceded by expressways. See the list here.
- Use highway=primary for G class normal access highways that superceded by expressways, but still important for local or regional traffic. See the list here.
- Use highway=secondary for G class highways that have been superceded by expressways but now have little traffic and probably in a poor state of maintenance.
- S routes - Shengdao (省道), or provincial highways.
- Use highway=motorway for S class expressways (高速公路) with white on green traffic signs, whose number contains 2 or 4 digits.
- Use highway=primary for important S class normal access highways connecting major regional cities/towns or provide them access to other major G or S class highways.
- Use highway=secondary for S class normal access highways connecting minor towns.
- X routes - Xiandao (县道), or county-level highways (probably unsigned; if unsure, follow the conventions for other roads).
- Y routes - Xiangdao (乡道), or township-level highways (probably unsigned; if unsure, follow the conventions for other roads).
- Use highway=tertiary for Y class ways when these are the more important roads between the smallest townships.
- Use highway=unclassified for other Y class ways. Switch to highway=residential in portions where the traffic flow is expected to be heavily affected by pepole/vehicles entering/leaving residential/commercial/industrial buildings along the road.
- C routes - Cundao (村道), or village-level highways (probably unsigned; if unsure, follow the conventions for other roads).
- Other unnumbered highways/roads usable by motor vehicles:
- Use highway=motorway for highways named Expressway (高速公路 or 高速) with white on green traffic signs.
- Use highway=trunk + motorroad=yes for urban expressways (城市快速路), which are roads, elevated roads or underground roads normally inside city areas that resemble expressways, but without Expressway in their names, mainly for rapid move inside city area. Traffic signs used on this kind of road can either be white on green or white on blue.
- City roads: roads/streets inside build-up areas, or has been built/rebuilt according to future city/town plans:
- In major cities, use highway=primary for ring roads, through-city routes and major routes for entering/leaving the city, with majority of traffic flow being through traffic. Only use it for arterial routes of significant importance with heavy traffic -- don't use it on every major street!
- Use highway=secondary for major city roads not categorized as highway=primary, linking major areas.
- In case that a road is supposed to be primary or secondary, but with even poorer condition than minor roads in the same area, use highway=tertiary.
- For feeder roads around blocks that collect most of the local traffic and act as the "bones" of local road netowrk, use highway=tertiary.
- For narrow public roads inside a community (typically in the width of 1 or 2 lanes and in most cases no dedicated bicycle lane) with little through traffic, use highway=residential.
- For other public city roads, use highway=unclassified. Switch to highway=residential in portions where the traffic flow is expected to be heavily affected by pepole entering/leaving residential/commercial/industrial buildings along the road.
- Portions of G and S routes inside cities/towns should normally follow their respective tag usage. For X, Y and C routes that has become de facto city roads as defined above, just treat them as city roads.
- Use highway=service for roads:
- inside a gated area (factories, gated communities, gated school/university campuses, ...), or simply with controllable barriers (gates, lift gates, etc., but not customs checkpoints or toll gates) at all of its exits, or
- only connect to other highway=service, or
- directly connected to the entrances of a line of building(s) and often with only one lane, which is supposed to merely provide access to these entrances, or
- almost serve no purpose other than provide access to a building or a gated area.
- Use highway=unclassified for other paved roads. Switch to highway=residential in portions where the traffic flow is expected to be heavily affected by pepole entering/leaving residential/commercial/industrial buildings along the road.
- Use highway=track for other unpaved roads.
- For dual-carriage motor vehicle only highways/roads with at least 2 lanes in each direction, which are similar to expressways, but with a small number of level intersections and white on blue traffic signs (may be informally referred to as 'quasi-expressways' or 'semi-expressways'), add motorroad=yes.
- Roads/paths not supposed to be used by motor vehicles
- Bike lanes
- If the bike lane is part of the road, just separated by a lane marking, add cycleway=lane.
- If the bike lane is separated from the road by an unmoveable barrier, such as a garden section or other non-passable obstruction, the preferred way is to map it as a separate highway=cycleway that runs alongside the road. However, adding cycleway=track to the road is acceptable if the actual location of the bike lane cannot be determined.
Generics in Chinese
- 胡同 (Hutong) : lanes (Beijing, Tianjin)
- 大院 (Dayuan) Courtyard
- 巷 (Xiang) : Alley, Lane
- 道 (Dao) : Byway
- 巷 (Xiang) : Alley, Lane
- 街 (Jie) : Street
- 大街 (Dajie) : Main street
- 路 (Lu) : Road
- 大道 (Dadao) : Boulevard
- 条 (Tiao) : Measure word for a street
- 小 (Xiao) : Small
- 大 (Da) : Large
- 西 (Xi) : West
- 东 (Dong) : East
- 南 (Nan) : South
- 北 (Bei) : North
- 中 (Zhong) : Center
- 外 (Wai) : Outer
- 内 (Nei) : Inner
- 桥 (Qiao) : Bridge
- 后 (Hou) : Behind
- 前 (Qian) : In front
打开编辑软件 Open the software
检查有没有冲突（重复）的地方 Check for conflicts
- The AsiaGPS forum contains many GPS traces from China and Asia in general. Please contact them to encourage them to release their data into OSM.
GNS Place names data
Rendering of Chinese place names seems to be working fine now in both Mapnik, after font issues were resolved, and Osmarender (where the suitable fonts are installed on the client that renders a part of the map).
The GNS data was extracted using some PHP code...
The China data file (ch.txt) was used as the source, only a small subset of the data was extracted as much of the data has not yet been updated with Chinese, the GNS Feature Classification (FC) of A was used as this data appeared the most complete as far as names are concerned at the time of extract.
Of records with an FC of A the data was further filtered to only include records with a Name Type (NT) of Conventional name (C), BGN Standard name (N), BGN Standard name in non-Roman script (NS) or alternatively Variant name in non-Roman script (VS), but only if the Language Code (LC) is not blank, English (eng) or Chinese (zho) on VS records.
With the data left, all records for a specific 'feature', based on the Unique Feature Identifier (UFI) were read to gather all available name data.
For records with an NT of C if the LC was eng, the English name was extracted. For records with an NT of N, the Pinyin name was extracted. For records with an NT of NS if the LC was zho, the Chinese name was extracted along with the descriptive portion of the name (GENERIC).
In addition, the UFI, the Unique Name Identifier (UNI), the Latitude (LAT), the Longitude (LON), the Feature Designation Code (DSG), the First-order administrative division code (ADM1) were extracted.
Once all data was extracted for a particular UFI the OSM place type was worked out for the feature based on either the GENERIC if available or the last word in a Pinyin name... The mapping was as follows...
With all data together, nodes were written as follows...
<node id='<unique negative id>' timestamp='2008-01-30T03:16:47+01:00' action='create' lat='<LAT>' lon='<LON>'> <tag k='created_by' v='dkt_GNS-import-1' /> <tag k='place' v='<mapped type>' /> <tag k='gns:UFI' v='<UFI>' /> <tag k='gns:UNI' v='<UNI>' /> <tag k='gns:DSG' v='<DSG>' /> <tag k='gns:ADM1' v='<ADM1>' /> <tag k='name' v='<Chinese name if available, or Pinyin name if available, otherwise no tag>' /> <tag k='name:zh' v='<Chinese name if available, otherwise no tag>' /> <tag k='name:zh_pinyin' v='<Pinyin name if available, always with tones, otherwise no tag' /> <tag k='name:en' v='<English name if available, otherwise no tag' /> </node>
The final OSM xml file was uploaded using the bulk upload tool...
The code used for this extract is pretty basic and is pretty specific to the job of importing Chinese name data, but, if you want a copy it is available on request... Dtucny 05:33, 9 May 2008 (UTC)
The AND Data recently donated to the project, is mainly focussed on the Netherlands but included some road network coverage of China (just major roads) Kleptog prepared a preview of the data. He imported the India data (Feb 2008) but it was decided not to import the China data for a few reasons...
1) The data is obsolete. The data appeared to be largely Vmap0 data from the mid-90s, as of 1993 there were virtually no Expressways in China, now there are more than 60000 km of Expressways, 30000km of this in the past 5 years alone... Last year a total of 423000km of rural roads were built or upgraded... The end result is that due to the amazing pace of development going on in China this data from the mid-90s doesn't come close to representing the reality of the road network today...
2) There is no information on any of the roads in the network beyond type, which, combined with the age of the data makes it difficult to identify which current road, if any, the data may have once represented...
3) The low resolution and general poor accuracy of the data would need to be heavily improved, however, the above two problems make that virtually impossible...
There is administrative boundary information in the AND data which would be useful to be imported.
There is water information in the AND data that needs further review but could be useful to be imported.
Dtucny 05:57, 9 May 2008 (UTC)
- JOSM软件使用帮助 --->正在翻译